第四編 隋唐五代史
Book 4 - History of the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties


Table of Contents
Illustrations
4.0 A General Synopsis of the 370-year History of the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties Period
4.1 The Rise and Fall of the Sui Dynasty
Supplement: A List of the Thirty Chou Tsung-kuan Fu of Sui Wen-ti
Supplement: A List of the One-hundred and thirty Chun of the Entire Country during the Ta-yeh period of Sui Yang-ti
Supplement: Chronology of the Major Events During the Sui Dynasty
4.1.1 Unification Under Sui Wen-ti and the Government of the K'ai-huang Period
4.1.1.1 Peace Within and Force Without
4.1.1.1.1 The Pacification of Chiang-nan Completes Reunification
4.1.1.1.2 Campaigns Against the T'u-ch'üeh (Turks) Strengthen the Border
4.1.1.2 Good Government of the K'ai-huang Period
4.1.1.2.1 The Revival of Culture, Education, Ritual and Music
4.1.1.2.1.1 Reforming Literary Style
4.1.1.2.1.2 Searching Out and Collecting Books
4.1.1.2.1.3 Rituals and Music
4.1.1.2.2 Purge Corrupt Practices and Promote Thrift and Virtue
4.1.1.2.3 Reduce Compulsory Labor Service, Strictly Enforce Rule of Law
4.1.1.2.4 Develop the Economy and Engage in Construction
4.1.1.2.4.1 Construction of a New Capital
4.1.1.2.4.2 Open Water Transport for Grain to Reach Capital
4.1.1.2.4.3 Widespread Construction of Granaries
4.1.1.3 The Administrative Failures of Sui Wen
4.1.2 The Tyrranical Administration of Sui Yang-ti
4.1.2.1 External Expansion by Sui Yang-ti
4.1.2.1.1 Pacification of the Turks
4.1.2.1.2 Defeat of the Ch'i-tan ()
4.1.2.1.3 Campaigns Against the T'u-yü-hun
4.1.2.1.4 Communications with the Western Region
4.1.2.1.5 Overseas Policies
4.1.2.1.5.1 Nan-p'ing Lin-i (林邑 )
4.1.2.1.5.2 Chen-la (眞臘) and P'o-li (婆利) Offer Tribute
4.1.2.1.5.3 Subjugation of Liu-ch'iu (琉球 Ryukyu Islands)
4.1.2.1.5.4 Ch'ih-t'u (赤土) Comfort(?? hsüan-wei)
4.1.2.1.5.5 Diplomatic Relations (t'ung-shih) with Wo-kuo (倭國 Japan)
4.1.2.1.6 The Korean (高麗 Kao-li) Expedition
4.1.2.1.6.1 The Situation in Korea
4.1.2.1.6.2 Peace and War with Korea During the Reign of Sui Wen-ti
4.1.2.1.6.3 Sui Yang-ti's Three Korean Campaigns
4.1.2.1.6.3.1 The First Korean Campaign
4.1.2.1.6.3.2 The Second Korean Campaign
4.1.2.1.6.3.3 The Third Korean Campaign
4.1.2.2 The Forced-labor Construction Projects of Sui Yang-ti
4.1.2.2.1 Building the Grand Canal (運河 Yün-ho)
4.1.2.2.1.1 T'ung-chi Canal (通濟渠)
4.1.2.2.1.2 Han-kou (邗溝) and the Chiang-nan River
4.1.2.2.1.3 Yung-chi Canal (永濟渠)
4.1.2.2.2 Managing the Construction of the Eastern Capital
4.1.2.2.3 Repairing the Great Wall
4.1.2.3 The Decline of State Power and Yang-ti's
4.1.2.4 Sui Yang-ti's Tyranny
4.1.2.4.1
4.1.2.4.2
4.1.2.4.3
4.1.3 The Collapse of the Sui Empire
4.1.3.1
4.1.3.1.1
4.1.3.1.2
4.1.3.1.3
4.1.3.1.4
4.1.3.1.5
4.1.3.1.6
4.1.3.1.7
4.1.3.1.8
4.1.3.1.9
4.1.3.1.10
4.1.3.1.11
4.1.3.1.12
4.1.3.1.13
4.1.3.1.14
4.1.3.1.15
4.1.3.2 The Death of Sui Yang-ti and the Fall of the Sui Dynasty
4.2 The Golden Age of the T'ang Dynasty
Map
Supplement: Chronology of the Major Events During the T'ang Dynasty
4.2.1 Unification under Kao-tsu and the Beginning of the Wu-te Administration
4.2.1.1 Li-T'ang Family Background
4.2.1.2 The T'ai-yüan Revolt
4.2.1.3 Sweeping Away the Warlords
4.2.1.3.1
4.2.1.3.2
4.2.1.3.3
4.2.1.3.4
4.2.1.3.5
4.2.1.3.6
4.2.1.3.7
4.2.1.3.8
4.2.1.4 The Early Wu-te Government
4.2.1.5 The Hsüan-wu Gate Incident
4.2.2 The Chen-kuan (貞觀) Administration of T'ang T'ai-tsung
4.2.2.1 T'ang T'ai-tsung's Style of Governing
4.2.2.1.1 Employ Those with Ability and Virtue
4.2.2.1.2 Study the Path of Good Government
4.2.2.1.3 Encourage Criticism
4.2.2.2 T'ang T'ai-tsung's Promotion of Learning
4.2.2.3 T'ang T'ai-tsung Organizes the Government
4.2.2.4 T'ang T'ai-tsung's Respect for Religious Freedom
4.2.3 The Era of Wu Tse-t'ien (武則天)
4.2.3.1 T'ang Kao-tsung and the Empress Wu
4.2.3.2 Wu Tse-t'ien's Administration
4.2.3.2.1
4.2.3.2.2
4.2.3.2.3
4.2.3.2.4
4.2.3.2.1.1
4.2.3.2.1.2
4.2.3.2.1.3
4.2.3.2.1.4
4.2.3.2.5
4.2.3.2.6
4.2.3.3 T'ang Chung-tsung's Restoration to the Throne
4.2.4 The Empress Wei and the Princess T'ai-p'ing Interfere in Politics
4.2.4.1
4.2.4.2
4.2.4.3
4.2.5 T'ang Hsuan-tsung's K'ai-yüan Period and the Chaos of the T'ien-pao Period
4.2.5.1 The K'ai-yüan Administration
4.2.5.1.1
4.2.5.1.2
4.2.5.1.3
4.2.5.1.4
4.2.5.1.5
4.2.5.2 The Chaos of the T'ien-pao Period
4.2.5.2.1 Hsüan-tsung ()
4.2.5.2.2 Li Lin-fu ()
4.2.5.2.3 Yang Kuei-fei ()
4.2.5.2.4 Yang Kuo-ch'ung ()
4.2.5.2.5 An Lu-shan ()
4.3 Boundaries and Areas of Influence of T'ang at It's Height
4.3.1
4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
4.3.1.4.1
4.3.1.4.2
4.3.1.4.3
4.3.1.4.4
4.3.1.4.5
4.3.1.5
4.3.1.5.1
4.3.1.5.2
4.3.2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.1.1
4.3.2.1.2
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.2.1
4.3.2.2.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.2.3.1
4.3.2.3.2
4.3.2.4
4.3.3
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.1.1
4.3.3.1.2
4.3.3.1.3
4.3.3.1.4
4.3.3.2
4.3.3.2.1
4.3.3.2.2
4.3.3.2.3
4.3.4
4.3.4.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3
4.3.4.3.1
4.3.4.3.2
4.4 The Collapse of the T'ang Dynasty
4.4.1 The Revolts of An Lu-shan and Shih Szu-ming
4.4.1.1 The Revolt of An Lu-shan and His Sons
4.4.1.1.1 An Lu-shan Seizes and Occupies Both Capitals and Is Proclaimed Emperor In Lo-yang
4.4.1.1.2
4.4.1.2 The Revolt of Shih Szu-ming and His Sons
4.4.1.2.1
4.4.1.2.2
4.4.1.2.3
4.4.1.2.4
4.4.2 The Endless Series of Border Garrison Uprisings Following the An-Shih Revolt
4.4.2.1
4.4.2.1.1
4.4.2.1.2
4.4.2.1.3
4.4.2.2
4.4.2.2.1
4.4.2.2.2
4.4.2.2.3
4.4.2.2.4
4.4.2.2.5
4.4.2.3
4.4.2.3.1
4.4.2.3.2
4.4.2.3.3
4.4.2.3.4
4.4.2.3.5
4.4.3
4.4.3.1
4.4.3.2
4.4.4
4.4.4.1
4.4.4.2
4.4.4.3
4.4.5
4.4.5.1
4.4.5.2
4.4.5.3
4.4.5.4
4.4.5.5
4.4.5.6
4.4.5.7
4.4.5.8
4.4.6
4.4.6.1
4.4.6.2
4.4.6.3
4.4.6.4
4.4.6.5
4.4.6.6
4.4.6.7 The Fall of the T'ang Dynasty
4.4.6.7.1 Chu Chuan-chung Overthrows the T'ang
4.4.6.7.2 The Garrison Commanders Divide and Occupy the Lands
4.4.6.7.2.1 Who Controls Chiang-Huai
4.4.6.7.2.2 Who Controls Che-chiang
4.4.6.7.2.3 Who Controls Fu-chien
4.4.6.7.2.4 Who Controls Kuang-chou
4.4.6.7.2.5 Who Controls Hu-nan (湖南)
4.4.6.7.2.6 Wang Chien Controls Shu-Han
4.5 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms - The Aftermath of the T'ang Dynasty
Introduction
Supplement: Chronology of the Major Events of the Five Dynasties Period
Supplement: Lineage of Rulers of Five Dynasties
Supplement: Lineage of Rulers of Ten Kingdoms
4.5.1 The Sequence of the Five Dynasties
4.5.1.1 The Latter Liang Period - the Liang-Chin Conflict
4.5.1.1.1 The Situation as the Entire Country Splits Aparts While Chu Ch'uan-chung Becomes Emperor
4.5.1.1.2 The Liang-Chin Battle for Lu-chou
4.5.1.1.3 Chin Seizes the Three Ho-pei Garrisons (chen)
4.5.1.1.4 The Death of Chu Ch'uan-chung
4.5.1.1.5 The Chin take Wei-Po and the Battle of P'o-yün
4.5.1.1.6 The Collapse of the Latter Liang
4.5.1.2 The Latter T'ang Period
4.5.1.2.1 T'ang Chuang-tsung loses virtue
4.5.1.2.2 The Campaign against Shu and the Revolt of Yeh-ch'eng
4.5.1.2.3 The Administration of Ming-tsung
4.5.1.2.4 Li Tsung-k'o amd Shih Ching-tang
4.5.1.2.5 The Rise of the Ch'i-tan State
4.5.1.2.6 Shih Ching-tang requests help from the Ch'i-tan and the fall of the Latter T'ang
4.5.1.3 The Latter Chin Period
4.5.1.3.1 Shih Ching-tang
4.5.1.3.2 Shih Chung-kuei
4.5.1.3.3 The Liao, Yeh-lu Te-kuang's destruction of Chin
4.5.1.3.4 Yeh-lu Te-kuang's Return North
4.5.1.4 The Latter Han Period
4.5.1.5 The Latter Chou Period
4.5.1.5.1 The Founding of the State by Kuo Wei, Chou T'ai-tsu
4.5.1.5.2
4.5.1.5.2.1 The Triumph at Kao-p'ing
4.5.1.5.2.2 Chou Shih-tsung
4.5.1.5.2.3 The Shu Expedition and the Southern T'ang Campaign
4.5.1.5.2.4 Chou Shih-tsung's Northern Expedition
4.5.1.5.3 The Mutiny at Ch'en Bridge
4.5.2 The Situation as the Ten Kingdoms Divide up the Land
4.5.2.1 Wu and Southern T'ang
4.5.2.1.1 Wu
4.5.2.1.2 Southern T'ang
4.5.2.2 Former Shu and Latter Shu
4.5.2.2.1 Former Shu
4.5.2.2.2 Latter Shu
4.5.2.3 Wu-yüeh and Wang-Min
4.5.2.3.1 Wu-yüeh
4.5.2.3.2 Wang-Min
4.5.2.4 Chu and Southern P'ing
4.5.2.4.1 Chu
4.5.2.4.2 Southern P'ing
4.5.2.5 Southern Han and Northern Han
4.5.2.5.1 Southern Han
4.5.2.5.2 Northern Han
4.6 The Administrative Institutions of the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties Period
4.6.1 Official Posts (Administrative System)
4.6.1.1 Central Government Officials
4.6.1.1.1 The Honorary Positions of Three Tutors (San Shih) and Three Lords (San Kung)
4.6.1.1.2 The Nine Courts (Chiu-szu)
4.6.1.1.3 The Three Depts and Ministerial Power
4.6.1.1.4 The Three T'ai of the Sui and the Yü-shih T'ai of the T'ang
4.6.1.2 Local Officials
4.6.2 Military System
4.6.3 Legal System
4.6.4 Education
4.6.5 Civil Service System
4.6.6 Taxes
4.7 Intellectual Thought and Fine Arts During the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties Period
4.7.1
4.7.2 Classical Studies (Ching-hsüeh)
4.7.3
4.7.4 Literary Studies (Wen-hsüeh)
4.7.5 Historical Studies (Shih-hsüeh)
4.7.6 Science
4.7.7 Fine Arts
4.7.7.1 Calligraphy
4.7.7.2 Painting
4.7.7.3 Stone Carving
4.7.7.4 Hand Crafts
4.7.8 Music and Dance
4.8 Religious Thought During the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties Period
4.8.1 Buddhism
4.8.1.1
4.8.1.1.1 The Sui Dynasty
4.8.1.1.2 The T'ang Dynasty
4.8.1.1.3 The Five Dynasties
4.8.1.2
4.8.1.2.1
4.8.1.2.2
4.8.1.3 The Development of Religious Sects
4.8.1.3.1 T'ien-t'ai (天&#x;)
4.8.1.3.2 Hua-yen (&#x;&#x;)
4.8.1.3.3 Fa-hsiang (法&#x;)
4.8.1.3.4 Chen-she (&#x;&#x;)
4.8.1.3.5 Chan (禪)
4.8.1.3.6 Cheng-t'u (&#x;&#x;)
4.8.1.3.7 Lü (&#x;)
4.8.1.3.8 Chen-yen (&#x;&#x;)
4.8.2 Taoism
4.8.2.1 The T'ang Royal Family's Respect for Lao-tzu and Dark Learning (Hsüan-hsüeh)
4.8.2.2 The T'ang Royal Family's Promotion of Taoism
4.8.2.3 The Long-term Harm of the T'ang Royal Family's Belief in Taoism
4.8.3 New Foreign Religions
4.8.3.1 Nestorianism (景教 Ching-chiao)
4.8.3.2 Zoroastrianism (祆教 )
4.8.3.3 Manicheism (摩尼教 Mo-ni-chiao)
4.8.3.4 Islam (回教 Hui-chiao)
4.9 Everyday Life and Society During the Sui, T'ang and Five Dynasties Period
4.9.1 Sui and T'ang Popular Culture (min-sheng she-hui)
4.9.1.1
4.9.1.1.1 Population and Household Registers
4.9.1.1.2
4.9.1.1.2.1
4.9.1.1.2.2 The Life of the Peasant-Farmer
4.9.1.1.2.3
4.9.1.2 Social Customs
4.9.1.2.1
4.9.1.2.2
4.9.1.2.3
4.9.1.2.4
4.9.1.2.5
4.9.1.2.6
4.9.1.2.6.1 Weddings
4.9.1.2.6.2 Funerals
4.9.1.3
4.9.1.3.1
4.9.1.3.1.1
4.9.1.3.1.2
4.9.1.3.1.3
4.9.1.3.2
4.9.2 Five Dynasties, Ten Kingdoms Popular Culture
4.9.2.1 The Suffering of the Common People
4.9.2.2 Regional Prejudice????
4.10 International Relations and Cultural Exchange During the Sui and T'ang Dynasties
4.10.1 Communications with the Northeast Region During the Sui-T'ang
4.10.1.1 Neighboring Countries in the Northeast
4.10.1.2 Routes to the Northeast
4.10.1.2.1 Land Routes
4.10.1.2.2 Water Routes
4.10.1.3 Cultural Exchange in the Northeast with Korea and Japan
4.10.1.3.1 Korea (朝鮮 Ch'ao-hsien)
4.10.1.3.2 Japan
4.10.2 Communications with the Western Region During the Sui-T'ang
4.10.2.1 The Western Kingdoms
4.10.2.2 Land Routes to the West
4.10.2.3 Water Routes to the West
4.10.3 Maritime Communications with Nan-yang (南洋 South Seas) in the Sui-T'ang
4.10.3.1 The South Sea Kingdoms
4.10.3.2 Trading Ports along the Southeast Coast and Market Commissioners of the T'ang
4.10.3.2.1 Trading Ports (mao-i kang)
4.10.3.2.2 Import Market Commissioner (Shih-po Shih also Shih-po Szu
4.10.3.2.3 Ocean-going Ships of the Sui-T'ang Period
4.10.4 The Mixing of the Races and Foreign Peoples Who Immigrated to China During the T'ang Period
4.10.4.1 The Mixed Chinese-Barbarian Influential Families of the T'ang Period
4.10.4.2 The Hu-shang and Fan-min of the T'ang Period
4.10.4.2.1 Foreign Peoples (蕃民 fan-min)
4.10.4.2.2 Hu-shang (胡商)
4.10.4.2.3 Slaves from Hu and from K'un-lun (崑崙)
4.10.5 East-West Cultural Exchange During the Sui-T'ang
4.10.5.1 The Eastward Spread of Western Culture from the Western Region (Hsi-yu)
4.10.5.2 The Transmission of Chinese Culture to the West