3.3.5 The Great War Between North and South During the Early Liang
and the Decline of the Northern Wei


Table of Contents
3.3.5.1 The Great Battle Between Liang and Wei
3.3.5.1.1 The North-South Conflict is Rekindled
3.3.5.1.2 The Expansion of the North-South Conflict
3.3.5.1.3 The Battle for Chung-li and the Floating Mountain Embankment (浮山堰 Fu-shan Yen)
3.3.5.2 The Decline and Disorder of the Northern Wei
3.3.5.2.1 The Political Decline of the Northern Wei
3.3.5.2.1.1 The Decline During Hsüan-wu-ti's Reign
3.3.5.2.1.2 The Misgovernment of Empress Dowager Hu
3.3.5.2.2 Northern Wei Faces Internal Revolt and External Invasion
3.3.5.2.2.1 The Revolt of the Six Garrisons
3.3.5.2.2.2 The Liang Counter-Offensive
3.3.5.2.2.3 The Revolt of Erh-chu Jung
3.3.5.2.2.4 The Revolt of Yuan Hao
3.3.5.2.2.5 The Revolt of Erh-chu Chao
3.3.5.2.2.6 The Meteroric Rise of Kao Huan
3.3.5.2.3 The Breakup of the Northern Wei State
3.3.5.3 The Northern Wei and the Jou-jan Confederacy
3.3.5.3.1 The Naming of the Jou-jan and Their People
3.3.5.3.2 The Rise and Fall of the Jou-jan and Their Destruction

3.3.5.1 The Great Battle Between Liang and Wei

3.3.5.1.1 The North-South Conflict is Rekindled<

In 502 when Hsiao Yen deposed the Ch'i Dynasty, Hsiao Pao-yin the son of Ch'i Ming-ti fled into exile at the Northern Wei court. It was not long before Ch'en Po-chih who had been appointed the Chiang-chou Prefect by the Liang emperor Hsiao Yen, because he had formerly served the Hsiao-Ch'i Dynasty as a general and at the urging of his aides, also revolted and fled to the Northern Wei, and this was just when Yuan K'o, Wei Hsüan-wu-ti, came to the throne. During the 3rd lunar month of 503 Hsiao Pao-yin prostrated himself before the gates of the palace in Lo-yang and wept bitterly with tears streaming down his face, day and night pleading with the Northern Wei to send out troops to help him restore his state and take his revenge. The Wei ruler therefore ordered Hsiao Pao-yin to assume the post of Yang-chou Prefect with 10,000 troops to act as a garrison for the Shou-yang Eastern city while Ch'en Po-chih was appointed the Chiang-chou Prefect and Inspector-General of the Military Affairs of Huai-nan in charge of the garrison at Yang-shih (Huo-ch'iu in An-hui), and Yuan Ch'eng King of Jen-ch'eng was placed in command of a large force that was to assemble at Shou-yang. With the arrangements already settled, when the 8th lunar month came in the fall of the year the Wei ruler once again concentrated men and horses from the six provinces of Chi, Ting, Ying, Hsiang, Ping and Chi in Huai-nan to assemble an army. Yuan Ch'eng was in charge of planning and operations and together with Hsiao Pao-yin and Ch'en Po-chih mounted a major campaign against the south acting as the eastern line of advance; in the west the Stabilizes the South General Yuan Ying was dispatched to command and advance on I-yang (Hsin-yang in Ho-nan). Thus the peace that had been maintained for four years was once again shattered.

3.3.5.1.2 The Expansion of the North-South Conflict

In the east Yuan Ch'eng led an army south from Shou-yang that successively captured the cities of Ying-chüan, Ta-hsien, Huai-ling and Ch'ing-hsi. The Liang General Chiang Ch'ing-chen with troops stationed at Chung-li (Feng-yang in An-hui) took advantage of the southern advance of the Wei forces which left Shou-yang empty to try and take it by surprise. Lady Meng, the wife of the King of Jen-ch'eng, resolutely defended the city as Chiang Ch'ing-chen assaulted it without success. When Hsiao Pao-yin arrived with troops to help, together with the defenders inside the city he caught the Liang forces between them and routed them. When Yuan Ch'eng heard this news he led his troops back north to take advantage of the victory with an assault on Chung-li smashing a Liang army at Shou-yang-chou during the 3rd lunar month of 504. Shortly after this Yuan Ch'eng led the army back to Shou-yang because with the coming of spring the waters of the Huai would rise, allowing the Liang navy to arrive.

In the west Yuan Ying the Stabilizes the South General, advanced to attack I-yang. There the Liang Ssu-chou Prefect Ts'ai Tao-kung offered stiff resistance. Day and night the Wei troops pressed their attack as the battle raged on for over 100 days as Ts'ai Tao-kung died and his young cousin Ts'ai Ling-en continued to defend the city. To aid I-yang the Liang emperor sent generals Ts'ao Ching-tsung and Ma Hsien-p'i. Ts'ao had troops stationed at Tsuo-hsien but hesitated before he would advance. Ma went to the aid of I-yang but was defeated by Yuan Ying and Ts'ai Ling-en, having come to the end of his strength, finally opened the gates of the city and surrendered. All at once the three passes near I-yang were occupied by the Northern Wei. The Wei then set up South Ssu-chou in the area of the former I-chou, moving the garrison south of the passes and appointing Cheng Shao-shu as the Prefect. Shao-shu built city walls, repaired machinery (?) and the vast fields produced grain for storage and thus the area of Wu-sheng Pass on Mount T'ung-pai became the north-south border.

Before this brief conflict on the Central Plain was concluded, the western regions of Shu-Han saw at the same time the beginnings of the north-south conflict. The Liang Han-chung Grand Administrator Hsiao-hou Tao-ch'ien, having originally served as a Southern Ch'i general therefore was in fear of losing his life so in 505 he killed the garrison commander and surrendered along with his commandery to the Northern Wei. Stationed in the vicinity of Nan-cheng was the Pai-ma Garrison Chief Yin T'ien-pao, who led his troops out to punish Tao-ch'ien, besieging him in Nan-cheng. Tao-ch'ien then requested aid from both the Northern Wei and the Ti King, Yang Shih, and it was Yang Shih who sent the troops that rescued Tao-ch'ien and killed Yin T'ien-pao in their attack. At the same time the Northern Wei also sent the Stabilizes the West General Hsing Luan leading a large force down south to aid Tao-ch'ien. In addition, Tao-ch'ien was appointed the Pacifies the South General and Marquis of Feng-hsien. When Hsing Luan and this great army reached Han-chung the city guards all fell to him. He also sent his officer Wang Tsu to lead a force that was to fight its way into Chien-ke which it did and forced the Liang army to withdraw and defend Tse-t'ung. As a result to the north of Mount Pa the fourteen commanderies of Liang-chou which extended 700 li from east to west and 1,000 li from north to south, was now occupied by the Wei. In long, quick marches the large force under Wang Tsu fought its was to Fu-ch'eng (now Mien-yang in Ssu-ch'uan) defeating in battle the Liang Supporting the State General Lu Fang-ta and killing fifteen high-ranking officers; defeating in battle the Champion General Wang Ching-yin and killing twenty-four high-ranking officers. For the moment about 20 or 30 percent of the cities and garrisons of I-chou had fallen to Wei and their registered households amounted to over 50,000. At this moment the Wei armies could have eliminated the Shu region in a single stroke but events unexpectedly gave rise to an unintended change that turned defeat into victory for the men of Liang. The Wei ruler Yuan K'o had originally used Wang Tsu to act as the I-chou Prefect but with the advant of Wang's continuing victories with his assaults reaching to Fu-ch'eng, the Wei ruler abruptly appointed Yang Chih the I-chou Prefect. Wang went into a great rage and then suddenly went over to the Liang and thus the lands that stretched south of Tsu-t'ung were once again under Liang control and with this the military situation completely turned around.

Wang Tsu's mutiny gave the morale of the Southern Court a great boost. In the winter of 505 the Liang emperor handed down a decree calling for a major punitive expedition to the north and with Hsiao Hung King of Lin-chüan as Inspector-General of all Military Affairs to Punish the North with Liu T'an the Right Supervisor of the Masters of Writing as his second in command, they directed and led a large force to advance and occupy Lo-k'ou. At the time the Wei Pacifies the South General Ch'en Po-chih had his army stationed at Tung Liang-ch'eng in Shou-chün which repeatedly mauled the Liang army. Ch'iu Ch'ih, a secretary to the King of Lin-chüan composed a letter sent to Ch'en Po-chih that spoke to him of good and harm, advantage and disadvantage and this letter was written with such emotion and vigor that it became a literary masterpiece. Ch'en Po-chih was greatly moved when he read the letter and suddenly led 8,000 of his followers in a return of their allegiance to the Liang state in what was also an entirely unexpected blow to the Northern Wei. Then the Liang North Hsü-chou Prefect Ch'ang I-chih took advantage of these circumstances to reconquer Liang-ch'eng while the Yü-chou Prefect Wei Jui retook Ho-fei and advanced his troops to Tung-ling. With this the Wei made Yuan Ying King of Chung-shan the Southern Campaign General at the head of a force of 100,000 with orders to fight the southern armies. After the treachery of Ch'en Po-chih, the Wei ruler also quickly assigned Hsing Luan to again move 10,000 troops from the six provinces of Ting-chou, Chi-chou, Ying-chou, Hsiang-shou, Ping-chou and Ssu-chou to increase the strength of Yuan Ying for a large-scale counter-attack on Liang-ch'eng. Hsiao Hung the Liang King of Lin-chüan had a very cowardly nature and upon seeing the power and splendor of the northern army he became exptremely apprehensive about his situation. One night during the 9th lunar month of 506 afraid of the dark and with the addition of violent winds and driving rain, Hsiao Hung thought that it was the sudden arrival of enemy troops and quickly took to his heels in a panic with his aides and a few cavalry. Within the army this sudden loss of their commander threw the organization into disorder. The Wei troops took advantage of the situation to advance and attack, and thus the great army of over 100,000 men that the King of Lin-chüan had led was defeated without a fight, abandoning their arms and armor in great dronves to flee while over 50,000 were killed. With Ch'ang I-chih form Liang-ch'eng, Chang Hui-shao from Hsia-ch'iu, Wei Jui from Tung-ling, the three columns of Liang troops were harried during their withdrawal. From Liang-ch'eng Ch'ang I-chih fell back to hold Chung-li while the Wei troops advanced in a great swarm to encircle the city but they continued the assault for a long time without result but with very heavy losses. Hsing Luan offered up a memorial informing the Wei court that he considered that they should not concentrate a great army to have it halt before the walls of this city. The Wei ruler thought that Hsing Luan showed fear and so recalled him and control of the army was returned to Yuan Ying, who along with Hsiao Pao-yin jointly attacked Chung-li, determined to conquer it no matter what the cost. Thus began the great battle for Chung-li.

3.3.5.1.3 The Battle for Chung-li and the Floating Mountain Embankment (浮山堰 Fu-shan Yen)

With a great army of over 100,000 the Wei King Yuan Ying besieged Chung-li from the 10th lunar month of the winter of 505 until the 1st lunar month in the spring of 507 and in the army Ch'ang I-chih used to defend the city there were still 3,000 men who still threw back the enemy assaults. The Liang sent the Right Guard General Ts'ao Ching-tsung to oversee a large force to relieve Chung-li and also ordered the Yu-chou Prefect Wei Jui to lead a force to reinforce him. When Wei Jui set out from Ho-fei he seized a small road that went north through the great Yin-ling swamp and so met up with Ts'ao Ching-tsung's army at Shao-yang-chou for a major advance on the Wei army. Wei Jui was a schemer and a skillful fighter who one day in several engagements routed Wei forces. With the coming of the 3rd lunar month the Huai River rose with the spring allowing the ships of the Liang army to move upstream and so they advanced on both land and on water. They set a fire that destroyed the pontoon bridge the Wei army had built on the Huai, smashing the Wei army in a great defeat with Yuan Ying fleeing in ruin. Over 100,000 in the Wei army were killed with 50,000 of these being drowned and the result was the breaking of the siege of Chung-li. This battle for Chung-li was a great turning point in the war between the north and the south. Because of this one battle the Wei offensive encountered a major setback while the Liang were able to stabilize their battle line along the Huai valley.

Although the battle of Chung-li brought a halt to major fighting between Liang and Wei, it did not bring the north-south conflict to a stop with a prolonged continuing struggle following it. In the second year after the battle of Chung-li in 508 the Wei Major of Ying-chou, P'eng Chen, mutinied secretly leading Liang soldiers to recover the three passes of I-yang. In 509 Yuan Ying King of Chung-shan recaptured the area. From this time on in the west from the Three Passes up to the Huai region in the east there was small-scale war between north and south that went on without stop. Because of the triumph at Chung-li, Liang Wu-ti frequently entertained the ambition of also recovering Shou-yang. At the time the Wei used Li Ch'ung as the Yang-chou Prefect and with a large garrison in Shou-yang the men of Liang did not dare advance recklessly. In the summer of 513 in the Shou-yang area it rained continuously for several months and the waters of the Huai swelled up while on the plain it stood several feet deep so that much water poured into the city forcing soldiers and people alike to flee the ruin leaving Shou-yang almost with protection. Reflecting on the fact that the city of Shou-yang was often flooded, the men of Liang knew that the Huai River was capable of surrounding Shou-yang. The Wei turn-coat general Wang Tsu then offered a plan to the Liang ruler saying that if a dike could be built downstream it then it would force the river to back up into Shou-yang. The Liang ruler made use of this plan and consequently in 514 mobilized 20,000 adult males and soldiers from the two provinces of Hsü-chou and Yang-chou to build an embankment at Chung-li that was called the Floating Mountain embankment. This construction project was extremely difficult and large, crumbling as soon as it was built in some sections, up until the 4th lunar month in the spring of 515 when the Floating Mountain embankment was finally completed. The embankment was 9 li long and 140 feet wide at the base, 45 feet wide at the top and 20 feet in height, erected using ch'i-liu (a kind of willow) on the top was ranged a palisade, thus the Huai River was blocked by the embankment and the high waters spread far and wide, innundating the lands for several hundred li with the area around Shou-yang being transformed into a swamp and the huts of the peasants were submerged beneath the waters much to the distress of the men of Wei. Li Ch'ung specially built another wei-ch'eng walled-city on Eight Duke Mountain (Pa-kung Shan) so that if the city walls of Shou-yang collapsed they could remove to it. At the same time the Wei ruler decided to dispatch troops to go and attack Chung-li, and they attacked and destroyed the Huai embankment. The Wei Right Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Li P'ing explained, "It is not necessary to weary the army with this labor, we saw that the Huai embankment would in the end destroy itself." And exactly as expected when the 9th lunar month arrived and the Huai River rose sharply the Floating Mountain Embankment suddenly crumbled and broke with a thunderous crash that was heard and whose tremble was felt for some 300 li. Thus the Huai waters came down in a great rush and the villages and towns along the river were all flooded and over 100,000 peasant were drowned to make this one of the great man-made floods. As soon as the Huai embankment fell the men of Liang then gave up all plans they had of retaking Shou-yang, making instead plans for their own defense while at the same time the unfolding civil war in the Northern Court also left it without any strength to campaign in the south. The north-south conflict began in 503 and dragged on for another fourteen years until the collapse of the Huai embankment in 516 and then once again it came to a temporary conclusion.

3.3.5.2 The Decline and Disorder of the Northern Wei

3.3.5.2.1 The Political Decline of the Northern Wei

3.3.5.2.1.1 The Decline During Hsüan-wu-ti's Reign

Although the decline of the Northern Wei finds its origins in the reign of Hsüan-wu-ti, Yuan K'o, the source of the disorder is to be found in the regency of the Empress Dowager Hu.

When Yuan K'o (T'o-pa K'o) ascended the throne as Wei Hsüan-wu-ti he was just fourteen years old and so was assisted in the government by all of his uncles (paternal?): Hsieh King of P'eng-ch'eng, Hsiang King of Pei-hai, Hsi King of Hsien-yang. The struggle for authority among the Kings broke out into internal accusations. In 501 on the advice of his aides, Hsüan-wu-ti dismissed all of the Kings to personally run the government, and put his faith in the obsequious ministers, Ju Hao, Chao Hsiu, Kao Chao and Yu Lieh. Because Yuan Hsi King of Hsien-yang would not submit to this he secretly plotted a coup but when Hsüan-wu-ti found this out he ordered Yu Lieh to lead troops to kill the king. After this he was even more distant and evasive toward the rest of the kings, believing instead what he heard from the petty ministers around him, especially favoring and trusting Kao Chao. Kao Chao's niece became Hsüan-wu-ti's concubine and in 508 (the year after the battle for Chung-li) she was set up as the empress and consequently Kao Chao was appointed Right Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Guard General and was in full control of the government. Kao Chao advanced slanderous remarks before Hsüan-wu-ti and one after the other, Hsiang King of Pei-hai and Hsieh King of P'eng-ch'eng died as he used any means to eliminate those who disagreed with him and becaus eof this raised eyebrows both in and out of court.

While on the one hand Hsüan-wu-ti put his faith in these false accusations, on the other hand he still believed in Buddhism, beginning the construction of the Yung-ming Temple with over one-thousand rooms. In addition, in the southern quarter of Lo-yang he built the Yin-ch'üeh stone grotto and there were over three-thousand Buddhist monks from the Western Region (the area to the west of Tun-huang) who came east to see it. During the Yen-ch'ang period (512-515) within the Wei state there were over thirteen-thousand Buddhist temples. During the Northern Wei beginning with T'o-pa Kuei, the ruler Tao-wu-ti, based on the story of Han Wu-ti killing the wife of Kou I there had been a family law whenever an Imperial Heir was named then his mother was killed. For this reason the women of the Imperial harem all wanted to give birth to female children and did not want any male children so when males were born they were usually secretly abandoned or killed. During the reign of Hsüan-wu-ti there were frequent funerals for Imperial sons but later on there was a Lady Hu of Ch'ung-hua who gave birth to a boy named I who became the Imperial Heir and since the Emperor was a devout Buddhist he could not bear to kill the child's mother and so Lady Hu became a lady of the Court.

In 514 (Wei 3, Liang T'ien-? 3) because Li Miao, son of the younger brother of the Liang-chou Prefect Li Lueh, along with the I-chou Master of Records Chun Yu-yueh revolted and switched their alllegiance from Liang to Wei, the men of Wei were persuaded to retake Shu. Wei Hsüan-wu-ti then ordered Kao Chao to act as General-in-Chief and lead a force of 150,000 infantry and cavalry to regain Shu. In the 1st lunar month of 515 Wei Hsüan-wu-ti suddenly became ill and died so Kao Chao, who was moving toward Shu, returned with the army when he heard of the funeral. At the time there was not a one of the great ministers at court who did not grind their teeth in anger at Kao Chao, so as soon as he had returned to Lo-yang he was killed by Yung King of Kao-yang (son of Hsien-wen-ti) and the Directs the Army General Yu Chung. Then Yu Chung together with Ts'ui Kuang the Junior Tutor of the Imperial Heir, Yuan Yung the the King of Kao-yang, Yuan Ch'eng the King of Jen-ch'eng and others jointly backed the ascension of Imperial Heir I who became the ruler Wei Hsiao-ming-ti (Filial Bright). This group also forced Empress Dowager Kao to become a Buddhist nun, establishing the Lady Hu as Empress Dowager with Yu Chung as the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Ts'ui Kuang as the Chariots and Cavalry General directing the administration from the court while the Empress Dowager Hu participated in the administration as regent.

3.3.5.2.1.2 The Misgovernment of Empress Dowager Hu

The Empress Dowager Hu was a very cunning person, for as soon as she became the regent because of the dominant power of Yu Chung, she sent him out to the provinces as the Chi-chou Prefect employing Yuan Ch'eng King of Jen-ch'eng as Minister of Works to direct the affairs of the Masters of Writing, and using her father, Hu Kuo-chen, as Palace Attendant and Chariots and Cavalry General. In 518 Yu Chung and Hu Kuo-chen died one after the other and in the next year King Ch'eng also passed away and thus Empress Dowager Hu had control of both the court and the administration. Because of her devotion to Buddhism, the Empress Dowager built many temples and monasteries. The Yung-ning "Eternal Peace" Temple built in Lo-yang beside the Imperial Palace was very beautifully built for in the temple there were eighteen foot gold statues, on the grounds there were built a nine-story pagoda some ninety feet tall whose wind chimes could be heard for several tens of li, while the one-thousand apartments for the monks were all lavishly appointed. Because of the Empress Dowager's fondness for Busshism many people left their families to become clergy while all of the nobility built their own temples in Lo-yang which competed with one another in their splendor. She frequently made donations to the monks, engaged in a multitude of tasks, she continued to expand construciton of the Yin-chüeh Grottos. The period of the Empress Dowager Hu's dominance in government was also the most opulent period for Buddhism during the Northern Dynasties, and it was also the age of the most eextravagant aristocratic lifestyles.

There were three personal aides that Empress Dowager Hu favored with appointments and one of them was the eunuch Liu T'eng, who when the ruler Hsüan-wu-ti died had the distinction of being the one who had protected her so consequently she used him as Palace Attendant and Guard General (Shih-chung Wei Chiang-chün). Another was her younger sister's husband, Yuan I (元乂) the Directs the Army General, while the third was her lover Yuan Yi (元懌) the King of Ch'ing-ho. (TRANS NOTE: To distinguish between Yuan I and Yuan I the second will be written as Yuan Yi.) Yuan I had overall control of the various palace units and along with Liu T'eng these two arrogantly and high-handedly wielded their power, while Yuan Yi, every time that they did so, increased their restraints from within so the two men deeply resented him. In 520 Liu T'eng confined the Empress Dowager to the palace and forged an order for the officers and men attached to the women's quarters (also the council chamber) to seize and kill Yuan Yi and later imprisoned the Empress Dowager then pleaded with the emperor to assume power. At the time the young ruler Yuan Yee (元翊) so Yuan I (元乂) and Yuan Yung King of Kao-yang helped him administer the state, but in reality the government was run by Yuan I (元乂) and Liu T'eng. With this Yuan Hsi (son of Yuan Ying) the Hsiang-chou Prefect and King of Chung-shan took up arms in Yeh-ch'eng condemning Yuan I (元乂) and Liu T'eng, but the attempt failed and he was killed. The eunuch Liu T'eng died in 523 leaving power over the state completely in the hands of Yuan I (元乂). Yuan I (元乂) delighted in wine and women, and also desired wealth so in the court discipline was completely destroyed with control over local officials thrown into confusion so the people could no longer obtain their livelihood and there were local uprisings all over the land. After the death of Liu T'eng the Empress Dowager was also able to regain her freedom. King Yung of Kao-yang was acting as Chancellor and was on bad terms with Yuan I (元乂) consequently he along with the Empress Dowager and the young emperor plotted to relieve Yuan I (元乂) of his military authority and have him demoted to the rank of a commoner and then ask the Empress Dowager to resume the regency. It was not long before in 525 Yuan I (元乂) was ordered to commit suicide. When the Empress Dowager resumed the regency she favored and trusted Cheng Yen and Hsü Ko (or Ho) and their power spread everywhere, people of the time called it Hsü-Cheng. The Empress Dowager was unrestrained in her private life and as the young emperor grew in age she cut him off when he questioned what she did so between mother and son the suspicion born of dislike grew deeper with each new day and thus the Wei government became daily more evil. It was then during the time of the misrule of Yuan I (元乂) and the Empress Dowager Hu that first the Revolt of the Six Garrisons broke out and then that of the Erh-chü Clan, and it was because of these revolts that the Northern Wei state completely disintegrated.

3.3.5.2.2 Northern Wei Faces Internal Revolt and External Invasion

3.3.5.2.2.1 The Revolt of the Six Garrisons

At the beginning of the Wei in order to guard against the threat of the Jou-jan (柔然) six garrisons were established along the northern border with large forces stationed in them whose officers and men all chosen from relatives and worthy men were given handsome pay. These six garrisons were: Wu-chuan (north of Ta-tung in Shan-hsi)
Fu-ming (north of Ta-tung in Shan-hsi)
Huai-shuo (north of Yu-yü in Shan-hsi)
Huai-huang (north of Ta-tung in Shan-hsi)
Jou-hsuan (north of T'ien-chen in Shan-hsi)
Yü-i (north of Huai-an in Ho-pei)

After Hsiao-wen-ti transferred the capital to Lo-yang, he stopped military activities and promoted culture so the aristocrats of the T'o-pa clan in the north all moved south in droves, and the Six Garrisons gradually became deserted and desolate, many of those who remained behind became outlaws. In 523 the Jou-jan Khan, Ah-na-kuei, led an invasion with a vast horde that devastated the people of the border regions. The people of the Huai-huang garrison begged Yu Ching the garrison commander to distribute provisions to them but he ould not supply them so in their fury the people of the garrison rose up in a mass riot killing Yu Ching. The people of Wo-yeh garrison led by P'o-liu-han-pa-ling also formed mobs that killed the garrison commander and with this the common people of the Six Garrisons heard the news and rose up in throngs in response, and then like the wild flames of a prairie fire stirred up a massive revolt of the border garrisons. In 524 the Wei ruler sent Li Ch'ung as the Great Inspector-General of the Northern Punitive Expedition to oversee the armies sent out to punish the rebels but they were defeated by P'o-liu-han-pa-ling. When Li Ch'ung withdrew his forces the Six Garrisons were then totally lost to the revolt. At the same time to the north of Chi-chou and Ping-chou and as far west as Ch'in-chou and Lung-chou the people rose up in revolt, the disturbances of the period are too numerous to count, yielding here and springing up there in a bewildering array that makes difficult to tell of them separately, the following list gives only the most significant of the revolts (see table).

3.3.5.2.2.2 The Liang Counter-Offensive

While Wei was involved with the revolt of the Six Garrisons in the northern part of their land, the Southern Court also availed themselves of the opportunity to begin a counter-offensive and in 524 Liang attacked and took Sui-ling in the east and recovered the three passes of I-yang in the west. In 525 the Wei Hsü-chou Prefect Yuan Fa-seng mutinied switching his allegiance to Liang so the Liang court sent out soldiers to escort Fa-seng to the capital. Although it was not long before Wei once again controlled Hsü-chou, the Liang forces had for the first time conquered P'eng-ch'eng and also in the same year they conquered Hsin-ts'ai. In 526 the Liang Prefect of Yü-chou, Hsia-hou Tan, launched a major effort that recovered Shou-yang and once again it became part of Yü-chou. In 527 Liang forces launched an offensive to take the thirteen walled towns of the Wei Kuo-yang area and with this complete the eastern part of the Southern border was pushed from south of the Huai River to north of it. The principal reason for the failure of the Wei military forces in this case is to be found in the internal disruption of the state, and the reason for this internal disruption lies in the erosion of the internal administration.

3.3.5.2.2.3 The Revolt of Erh-chu Jung

Erh-chu Jung was a tribal leader of the North Hsiu-jung district (now Shuo hsien in Shan-hsi) and at the time of the revolt of Mo-che Nien-sheng there was also a man from Hsiu-jung by the name of Ch'i-fu Mu-yu who raised troops in revolt and who was put down by Erh-chu Jung. Because the people of the empire were oppressed, when Erh-chu Jung dispersed the wealth of his family widely he gained control over the powerful and brave so that his own power and influence grew with each passing day. The men of the northern frontier, Hou Ching, Tuan Jung and Kao Huan all sought the protection of Erh-chu Jung. Having punished the rebel bandits, Jung was appointed Chariots and Cavalry General, Grand Inspector-General Chastizing the Serfs of the Six Provinces of Ping, Ssu, Fen, Kuang, Heng and Yün, and enfeoffed as the Duke of Po-ling Commandery and also at the same time formed a close association with Yuan T'ien-mu, the Ping-chou Prefect. Kao Huan was the son of Kao Hu, the Yen Commandery Grand Administrator, who had lived along the northern borders for generations, he had been involved in the revolt of Tu Lo-chou but when Lo-chou's army was defeated and absorbed by Ko Jung, Kao Huan then fled to seek the protection of Erh-chu Jung. Kao Huan was a man of great tact and intelligence, who seeing the misrule of Empress Dowager Hu with Hsü and Cheng in authority then advised Erh-chu Jung to call up his troops to settle the problem by purging those beside the ruler. By an odd quirk of fate the young Wei emperor was forced by the Empress Dowager, and Hsü and Cheng secretly instructed Erh-chu Jung to march to the capital. When he received the imperial edict in 528 Jung immediately called up troops to move south and used Kao Huan as the vanguard. When Hsü Ko and Cheng Yen obtained information of this, together with the Empress Dowager they plotted the death of the young emperor putting in his place as emperor Yuan Chao, son of Yuan Hui King of Lin-t'ao, who was just three years old.

When the great army of Erh-chu Jung crossed the river, the units guarding the river bridges surrendered without a fight which shocked those within the city walls of Lo-yang. Cheng Yen and Hsü Ko opened the gates of the city and then themselves fled, while the Empress Dowager shaved her head to become a Buddhist nun, and all of the officials went out of the city to welcome Erh-chu Jung. When he arrived Jung dispatched soldiers to arrest the Empress Dowager and the young emperor to take them to Ho-yin where they were thrown into the river. He then gathered together the officials beside the emperor's travel lodge at T'ao-chu (now south of Meng-hsien in Ho-nan) and then let his barbarian horsemen trample them to death, from the Chancellor King Yung of Kao-yang and Yuan Ch'in the Minister of Works on down, over two-thoussand men died. In addition he set up King Tzy-yu of Ch'ang-le as the emperor (he was the son of Yuan Hsieh) who became Hsiao-chuang-ti (Filial August). Erh-chu Jung himself became the General-in-Chief, Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Inspector-General of Inner and Outer Military Affairs and was enfeoffed as the King of T'ai-yuan. Jung had not even been in Lo-yang for a month when he led his army north back to Chin-yang, while Yuan T'ien-mu remained behind as Palace Attendant, Intendant of the Masters of Writing to assist the government, but most of the administrative affairs were decided by Tien-mu. At this moment Ko Jung was starting an uprising in Chi-chou and had assembled a force said to be 100,000 strong, when Erh-chu Jung once again led his army out of Chin-yang east to Fu-k'ou where he destroyed Ko Jung's horde and took Ko prisoner. Now with the five provinces of Chi-chou, Ting-chou, Ts'ang-chou, Ying-chou and Yin-chou all pacified the power and influence of Erh-chu Jung became ever more great.

3.3.5.2.2.4 The Revolt of Yuan Hao

When Yuan hao the Wei Prefect of Hsiang-chou and King of Pei-hai learned that Erh-chu Jung had slaughtered all of the kings and officials, he fled in fear to the south where he surrendered to the Liang court, and at the same time in addition to him, Yuan Hsian-ta the Prefect of Ying-chou, Yuan Yüeh King of Ju-nan, Yuan Huo King of Lin-huai and others all went over to the Liang. Liang Wu-ti promptly enfeoffed King Hao as the King of Wei and ordered his General-in-Chief Ch'en Ch'ing-chih to command a force of troops to excort Yuan Hao back to his country and take care of his difficulty. Without meeting any opposition, Ch'en Ch'ing-chih and Yuan Hao advanced and took Ying-ch'eng and Sui-yang (Shang-ch'iu in Ho-nan) and it was in Sui-yang that Yuan Hao was proclaimed emperor and then from Sui-yang advanced north defeating successive Wei armies and force-marching to attack and conquer Lo-yang causing Hsiao-chuang-ti to flee to Ho-pei. Yuan Hao then changed the reign title, issued a general amnesty and appointed Ch'en Ch'ing-chih as his Palace Attendant and Chariots and Cavalry General. Ch'en Ch'ing-chih had advanced to Lo-yang with an almost irresistable (bamboo breaking) force, capturing altogether thirty-two walled cities and victorious in forty-seven engagements. Yuan Hao claimed that Heaven had assisted him and having retaken the throne then became maughty and cold, indulging himself in wine and ignoring the affairs of government. When Erh-chu Jung heard of the changes taking place in L-yang he quickly led a large army down south, meeting with Hsiao-chuang-ti at Ch'ang-tzu and then marching down the course of the river. When Ch'en Ch'ing-chih led an army across the river to fight a major battle with Erh-chu Jung that went on for three days with both sides suffering heavy losses. From the wings of the army Erh-chu had sent his nephew Erh-chu Chao across the river and he splintered Yuan Hao's army to then wheel around into Ch'ing-chih's rear. Attacked from both the front and the rear, Ch'ing-chih's entire army was routed and he changed into the garb of a Buddhist monk to flee back to Chien-k'ang. Yuan Hao also fled for his life into the east, but upon reaching the region around Lin-ying he was murdered by prefectural soldiers. Erh-chu Jung thus served Emperor Hsiao-chuang-ti and also recovered Lo-yang and for this achievement he was promoted to the post of Grand Chancellor and Pillar of the State General-in-Chief ().

3.3.5.2.2.5 The Revolt of Erh-chu Chao

After Erh-chu Jung conquered Lo-yang, although he returned to his post in Chin-yang he was still in complete control of the court and the administration. In addition, Jung made his daughter the empress so that she would be there in the court to keep an eye on Hsiao-chuang-ti. Faced with both internal and external restrictions, the emperor was indignant at the injustice and consequently plotted in secret with his aides Yuan Hui King of Ch'eng-yang, Li Huo the Palace Attendant and others to eliminate Jung. In the 9th lunar month of 30 when Erh-chu Jung and Yuan T'ien-mu came to visit the court, the emperor held a banquet for them in the Ming-kuang Palace where hidden soldiers killed Jung and T'ien-mu along with Jung's son Erh-chu P'u-t'i and thirty others. With this Jung younger brother, Erh-chu Shih-lung, gathered together Jung's followers and went north across the river to join forces with Jung's nephew Chao at Ch'ang-tzu where they swore to avenge Erh-chu Jung. They separately supported the T'ai-yuan Grand Administrator Yuan Yeh King of Ch'ang-kuang as the emperor with Chao making himself General-in-Chief and Shih-lung the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and at the same time requesting that Erh-chu Ch'ung-yuan the Prefect of Hsü-chou join them in a counter-attack on Lo-yang from two sides. Hsiao-chuang-ti sent out troops to oppose the two armies and defeated both of them. Then Erh-chu Chao led troops across the river and marched quickly to storm Lo-yang with Hsiao-chuang-ti being made a prisoner by Chao as he tried to flee the panic. As soon as Chao had entered the city of Lo-yang there was a bandit chief from west of the river, Ko-tou-ling-pu-fan, who received a secret edict from the emperor to launch a surprise attack on Hsiu-jung which created a crisis in the north. Erh-chu immediately led his troops back to Chin-yang and also had the emperor moved to Chin-yang where he was killed by strangulation. When Erh-chu Chao met Ko-tou-ling-pu-fan in battle he suffered a major defeat and so had to request the aid of Kao Huan the Prefect of Chin-chou who led an army out to join him to smash and kill Ko-tou-ling-pu-fan. At this time the upheavals of the Six Garrisons had not yet settled and the remnants of Ko Hung's army wandered like bandits across the northern reaches of Ping-chou. Erh-chu therefore, found it expedient to order Kao Huan to advance into the area to either destroy or win over these scattered bands so Kao Huan set up his standard in Yang-chü-chuan (northeast of T'ai-yuan in modern Shan-hsi) calling on the wandering bandits of the Six Garrisons to surrender and from moment on his power and influence became more splendid with each passing day.

3.3.5.2.2.6 The Meteroric Rise of Kao Huan

Erh-chu Shih-lung, Erh-chu Tu-lü and others who were in the capital of Lo-yang in 531 all recognized Yuan Yeh King of Ch'ang-kuang was only distantly related to the royal house and was without popular support, therefore, they deposed him and replaced him with Yuan Kung King of Kuang-ling (son of Yü King of Kuang-ling) who became the ruler Wei Chieh-min-ti. The Emperor Chien-min-ti promoted Erh-chu Chao to Inspector-General of the Military Affairs of Ten Provinces, made Erh-chu Ch'ung-yuan the Prefect of Hsü-chou, Erh-chu T'ien-kuang the Prefect of Yung-chou and with this the reins of government were all in the hands of the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Erh-chu Shih-lung. Erh-chu Chao's murder of the emperor Hsiao-chuang-ti led to agitation in the local provinces and garrisons. One of the results of this was the revolt in Ying-chou (now Ch'ing-yuan in Ho-pei) of the Campaign in the East General Liu Chen-chü of the hsing-t'ai (a regional mobile administration) for the four provinces of Yu-chou, P'ing-chou Ying-chou and An-chou while the Ho-nei Grand Administrator Feng Lung-chih and the brothers Kao Ch'ien and Kao Ao-ts'ao began a revolt in Hsin-tu, all condemning the Erh-chu family. Kao Huan had finished pacifying all of the wandering bandits and advanced to occupy Hu-kuan (Gourd-jug Pass). Since Kao Ch'ien and Kao Huan had the same surname, Kao Ch'ien went to see him to try and explain the advantages and disadvantages of the situation to persuade him to join with them in taking up arms in the cause of justice. So it was that Kao Huan decided to lead his followers into Hsin-tu to join with Feng Lung-chih and Kao Ch'ien to cooperate in a counter-attack on the Erh-chu clan. After only two months Liu Chen-chü's revolt collapsed and there only remained Kao Huan and Kao Ch'ien in Hsin-tu whiere the surrounding area rose up to follow them so their power and influence greater greater with each passing day. At this time they set up Yuan Lang King of Po-hai the son of Jung King of Chang-wu as the emperoro ascending the throne in Hsin-tu with Kao Huan making himself Palace Attendant and General-in-Chief. When Erh-chu Chao heard of Kao Huan's insurrection then along with Erh-chu Ch'ung-yuan, Erh-chu Tu-lu and others jointly called up troops to put down Kao Huan. Kao Huan smashed Erh-chu Chao at Kuang-ah and stormed Yeh-ch'eng where Kao rose to the rank of Grand Master and Yuan Lang entered the city. Chao, Ch'ung-yuan, Tu-lu and T'ien-kuang again marched to attack Yeh-ch'eng and again were thrown back by Kao Huan. Erh-chu Chao then fell back to Chin-yang; Erh-chu T'ien-kuang and Tu-lu fell back to defend Lo-yang. With this an internal revolt suddenly broke out in Lo-yang with the Wei officers Hu Ssu-chun, Chang-sun Chih, Chia Hsien-chih and others seized T'ien-kuang and Tu-lu, killing Shih-lung and others with the Emperor Chieh-min-ti's decree welcoming Kao Huan back to Lo-yang. When Erh-chu Ch'ung-yuan obtained this news he abandoned Hua-t'ai and went over to Liang in the south.

When Kao Huan arrived in Lo-yang he deposed both Yuan Kung and Yuan Lang setting up in their place Yuan Hsiu King of P'ing-yang (grandson of Yuan Hung the ruler hsiao-wen-ti) who then became the ruler Wei Hsiao-wu-ti. Kao Huan himself became the Grand Chancellor, Grand Master, Pillar of Heaven General-in-Chief and Prefect of Ting-chou. His son Kao Ch'eng was named a Palace Attendant and his daughter became the Empress. in the brief space of three year's time from 530to 532, there were five successive emperors (Tzu-yu, Hsiao-chuang-ti; Yeh King of Ch'ang-kuang; Kung King of Kuang-ling; Yuan Lang Po-hai Grand Administrator; and Yuan hsiu the ruler Hsiao-wu-ti) while the dynasty rid itself of the Erh-chu clan only to replace them with Kao Huan. having installed Hsiao-wu-ti as the ruler, Kao Huan then poisoned Chieh-min-ti, killed Erh-chu Tu-lu and T'ien-kuang, and then returned to Yeh-ch'eng to advance and attack Chin-yang where Erh-chu Chao suffered a major defeat and fled north to hang himself in Chih-kung Ling. Thus the upheavals of the Erh-chu clan were completely suppressed with the Northern Wei state then becoming the domain of Kao Huan.

3.3.5.2.3 The Breakup of the Northern Wei State

Emperor Hsiao-wu-ti used Hu Ssu-chun as a Palace Attendant who worked closely with the Emperor and assisted him with the administration. Hu had contributed greatly to the elimination of the Erh-chu clan but afterwards seeing that with Kao Huan defiance of authority did not end with the Erh-chu clan, many of the great and powerful ministers of the court had been either executed or censured so there was much resentment and unease. Consequently Hu Ssu-chun and Pao-chü King of nan-yang, Yuan P'i the Martial Guard General and others joined together to convince Hsiao-wu-ti to eliminate Kao Huan. The emperor was a ruler with the potential to do great things so he then planned secretly with Hu Ssu-chun, first relying on Ho Pa-yueh the Grand Hsing-t'ai of northwest Kuan-chung to resist Kao Huan, instructing that Ho be made the Prefect of Yung-chou and Inspector-General of the Military Affairs of Yung-chou, Hua-chou and other provinces. When Kao Huan heard of the growing power of Ho Pa-yueh he then sent out agents to drive a wedge between his enemies and formed an alliance with the Ch'in-chou Prefect, Ho-mo Ch'en-yueh, to plot the demise of Ho Pa-yueh. Then when Ho Pa-yueh was moving his army to Ho-chü (the bend of the Yellow River west of Ling-chou) he was lured to his death by Ho-mo. Ho Pa-yueh's following then jointly acclaimed Yu-wen T'ai, the Prefect of Hsia-chou, as their leader and executed Ho-mo Ch'en-yueh. Now with possession of both Ho-mo Ch'en-yueh's and Ho Pa-yueh's followers along with complete control over the lands of Kuan and Lung (Shensi and Kansu), the power and influence of of Yu-wen T'ai received a great boost. Hsiao-wu-ti found it expedient to appoint Yu-wen T'ai a Palace Attendant, Galloping Cavalry General-in-Chief and Grand Inspector-General of Kuan-hsi (the land west of the passes; referring to the areas of Shensi and Kansu), and enfeoffed as the Duke of Lueh-yang County. In order to avoid Kao Huan's coercion, the Emperor also sent envoys into Kuan-chung to secretly direct Yu-wen T'ai to dispatch troops to escort him to the west, so Yu-wen T'ai then sent his troops out of the pass to meet the imperial carriage. When Chancellor Kao Huan heard of this he immediately sent up a memorial accusing both Yu-wen T'ai and Hu Ssu-chun of crimes, but the Hsiao-wu-ti also down down an edict saying that the responsibility for these crimes was with Kao Huan. Kao, enraged at this, immediately took command of a large force to go down south voicing his condemnation of Hu Ssu-chun. At the same time Yu-wen T'ai was transmitting a call to arms to the provinces and commanderies enumerating the crimes of Kao Huan, while he personally led a major force to march to garrison Hung-nung. In the 7th lunar month of the fall of 534 with Hu Ssu-chun serving as his vanguard, Hsiao-wu-ti personally led a large force to garrison Ho-ch'iao and defend it against Kao Huan. It was not expected when it was discovered that Kao Huan's military formations had already crossed the river from the flank so it was with great confusion and haste that the Emperor along with Hu Ssu-chun then followed the army of Yu-wen T'ai into Ch'ang-an. Kao Huan led his army into Lo-yang and sent out troops to pursue the emperor that returned when they failed to catch up with him. From Lo-yang Kao Huan sent forty memorials one after the other to the emperor requesting that he return to the capital but Hsiao-wu-ti completely ignored them. Kao Huan threfore summoned the officials to gather and they set up the heir of the King of Ch'ing-ho, Shan-chien, as their emperor (the great grandson of Hung, Hsia-wen-ti, and only eleven at the time) and at the same time transferred the capital to Yeh-ch'eng where in the 10th lunar month of 534 he became the Eastern Wei ruler Hsiao-ching-ti. Two months after this Yuan Hsiu, Hsiao-wu-ti, was killed by Yü-wen T'ai who then acclaimed Pao-chü King of Nan-yang as the emperor with the capital established at Ch'ang-an where he became the Western Wei ruler Wen-ti. With this the Wei state was divided into eastern and western parts with the former dominated by the Kao clan and the latter by the Yü-wen clan but by this time the Northern Wei state had actually already fallen.

3.3.5.3 The Northern Wei and the Jou-jan Confederacy

The Jou-jan were the major foes of the men of Wei to the north of their lands and it was for the very reason of defending against these Jou-jan that the Six Garrisons already mentioned were set up. Ever since the T'o-pa clan of the Hsien-pei tribe came to rule the Central Plain as the Northern Wei, from start to end they had an unending conflict with the Jou-jan that lasted for two-hundred years making them the greatest threat to the people of the Wei state. In brief, from the time of the Ch'in and Han Dynasties up to the Sui and T'ang there were four great nomadic peoples who had opposed China, and they were the Hsiung-nü, the Hsien-pai, the Jou-jan, and the T'u-chüeh (Turks). Because up to now Han Chinese historians have for the most part considered the Han Southern Court as having primacy while the Northern Court of the Hsien-pei was of secondary importance, the Jou-jan who were cut off to the north of the Northern Court, could not avoid being neglected. It was for this reason then that of the historical documents that record these four great peoples those concerning the Jou-jan are the most incomplete, the only important reference materials are the Wei Shu and the Jou-juan Biography of the Pei Shu (the Pei Shu is copied from the Wei Shu). Because the rise and fall of the Jou-jan parallel that of the Northern Wei we must here give them a brief explanation.

3.3.5.3.1 The Naming of the Jou-jan and Their People

In the Wei Shu and the Pei Shu the name Jou-jan is also given as Juan-juan and this was because T'o-pa T'ao, the Wei ruler T'ai-wu-ti, regarded the Jou-jan with hostility and dismissed them as ignorant insects so he, therefore, ordered that their name become Juan-juan (a word that describes worm-like wriggling). In the Liang Shu, the Ch'i Shu and the Sung Shu they are called Jui-jui, and in the Sui Shu Ju-ju which in reality are all but variations of one sound. With regard to the racial composition of the Jou-jan, according to the Wei Shu and the Pei Shu they are identified as being descended from the Eastern Hu, and also as a separate tribe of the Hsien-pei. According to the Sung Shu and the Liang Shu they are identified as being a separate kind of Hsiung-nü and in the latter is says, "during the era of the Wei and Chin Dynasties the Hsiung-nü split up into hundreds and thousands of pu (tribes, a small self-sustaining community), each with its own name and one of these pu was the Jui-jui." After the defeat, dispersal and decline of the Hsiung-nü of the Eastern Han, the Hsien-pei rose to prominence and many of the Hsiung-nü that lived to the north of the Gobi Desert submitted to the Hsien-pei, mixing together with them as their bloodlines mingled together and the tribal units proliferated in number. Thus, the Jou-jan should be considered an offshoot of mixed Hsiung-nü and Hsien-pei racial stock. Originally they inhabited the area north of the Gobi (Outer Mongolia) moving about in search of water and pasture in a completely nomadic style of life. With their people ready to move, with braided hair, rich garments, short-sleeved robes, tight pants and high boots their cultural level was very low. (See Northern Ti in Southern History.)

3.3.5.3.2 The Rise and Fall of the Jou-jan and Their Destruction

The apical ancestor of the Jou-jan is a man by the name of Mu-ku-lü (see the Juan-juan Biography in the Wei Shu). Mu-ku-lü's son, Chü-lu-hui, was a brave and resourceful ruler who first established this clan that called itself 'Jou-jan' at the same time that T'o-pa I-lu was being proclaimed the King of Ta. At the time the Jou-jan had already submitted to the T'o-pa clan as vassals who lived south of the desert in the winter and north of the desert in the summer with a yearly tribute of horses, livestock and sable pelts. After Chü-lu-hui the leadership passed on through four others to come finally to Yün-ho-t'i who severed relations with the T'o-pa clan to become independent. After being passed on six more times it came to She-lun and the the Jou-jan became strong and prosperous. He first established military laws and a method of tactical deployment for cambat. The military formations were organized with 1,000 men forming a chün (regiment) commanded by a chiang (colonel), with 100 men forming a ch'uang (pennant) commanded by a shuai (captain). During a battle the first one to advance was rewarded while those who fell behind were killed. Consequently they annexed all of the Hsiung-nü that remained north of the desert along with several other nomadic tribal groups. Their lands spread west to the kingdom of Yen-ch'i (Karashahr) in the Western Region while it the east it reached the northern borders of Ch'ao-hsien (Korea), and in the south it neared Ta-ch'i almost completely the same as the former lands of the Hsiung-nü. She-lun, therefore, called himself Ch'iu-tou-fa Khan (which meant the same as Great Khan). His imperial court often halted at Tun-huang or north of Chang-yeh. The reign of She-lun Khan was just the same as that of the Wei Emperor Tao-wu, T'o-pa Kuei and when the two heroes ascended the throne a fierce struggle had already developed. Afterwards the Jou-jan would often take advantage of the southern adavnce of the men of Wei to continuously make forays into strategic positions along the Northern Wei frontiers. They had also arranged a diplomatic marriage with Feng Pa of the Northern Yen to jointly oppose the Northern Wei. From this time on the hostilities between the Jou-jan and the Wei went on in an endless succession.

After She-lun Khan power passed on three times to come to Ta-t'an, called Mou-han-ko-sheng-k'ai Khan. By the time of the death of T'o-pa Ssu, the Wei Emperoro Ming-yuan, they had already invaded Yun-chung and when T'o-pa T'ao, the Emperor T'ai-wu, ascended to the throne there were large-scale punitive campaigns against the Jou-jan. Some of the important of these punitive campaigns are: 425 T'ai-wu-ti personally leads an expedition to the north that advances in five columns. The Jou-jan move north across the desert and in spring of the next year the Wei army withdraws. 429 Once again T'ai-wu-ti commands a northern punitive expedition that reaches 3,700 li from P'ing-ch'eng passing by the old wall of Tou-hsien and crossing over the Yen-jan Shan to accept the surrender of over 300,000 from all of the tribes of the Jou-jan and the Kao-chu, with booty, heads and captives along with over 1 million war steeds. Because of his defeat, Ta-t'an Khan takes ill and dies. His son, Hu-t'i, follows him and was known as the Lai-lien Khan who in 431 sent envoys to the Wei court to repair relations with them. 436 The Jou-jan again break the peace and invade the frontier. In 438 T'ai-wu-ti once again campaigns against the Jou-jan, marching his troops as far as T'ien-shan they not yet encountered the enemy when suddenly they were faced by a drought north of the desert and were without any water. Many of the men and horses died so they returned without success. 441 T'ai-wu-ti travels to the southern edge of the desert and sends out four columns that smash the Jou-jan at the Orkhon River with Hu-t'i fleeing. T'ai-wu-ti then returned south. In the next year Hu-t'i dies and his son, T'u-ho-chen, becomes the Ch'u Khan. 449 T'ai-wu-ti again personally leads the army in a major punitive operation against the Jou-jan several thousand li beyond the frontier forts, while T'u-ho-chen also sends out crack troops to engage the enemy and on the field of battle the main forces engaged in a fierce fight with the Jou-jan finally defeated. The Wei ruler captured over 1 million head of livestock and then returned. This battle left the Jou-jan weak and exhausted, withdrawing to the north while the men of Wei also suffered very serious losses. After this the border regions were quiet and for over ten years there was no major engagements involving the two sides. --- T'o-pa T'ao, the Wei Emperor T'ai-wu, was a vigorous and talented ruler with great plans but his twenty-nine years on the throne were also years of Jou-jan prosperity so he went to the extreme of committing all of his strength to seek a decisive engagement with the Jou-jan and after after several attempts to take the initiative by going out to attack the Jou-jan were finally shattered and they returned to the north of the desert in a situation that was very similar to that of Han Wu-ti's campaigns against the Hsiung-nü. In the sixth year after the death of T'ai-wu-ti, T'o-pa Jui, the ruler Wei Wen-ch'eng-ti, sent out 100,000 cavalry and 150,000 war wagons in a force whose flags and banners snaked along for a thousand li,to cross over the great desert and search out the Jou-jan. T'u-ho-chen vanished into the distance and all trace of him disappeared so several thousand scattered tribes of Jou-jan came to surrender and the army returned after carving a stone to record their accomplishments. This marks the highpoint of the Northern Wei suppression of the Jou-jan.

In 464 the Jou-jan Khan, T'u-ho-chen dies and his son, Yü-ch'eng succeeded him as the Shou-lo-pu-chen Khan, but it was in 463 that the Jou-jan again began to gradually move south and once again to pillage and harrass the strategic positions along the Northern Wei border. In 470 the ruler Wei Hsien-wen-ti then sent out T'o-pa P'i Duke of Tung-yang to supervise the armies for a northern punitive expedition which ranged out 6,000 li beyond the frontier to return after inflicting the loss of tens of thousands of men on the enemy. By the reign of Hsiao-wen-ti the Jou-jan Khan sent envoys to the Wei court bearing tribute and requesting peace and a marriage alliance. After this between the Jou-jan and the Northern Wei there were periods of peace and war, constantly alternating between revolt and submission, however, there were no large-scale hostilities.

Although the Jou-jan lived far to the north of the frontier, they were the enemies of the Wei; yet they also understood the path of yuan-chiao chin-kung (cultivate ties with distant countries and attack neighboring ones - a strategy adopted by the state of Ch'in during the Warring States Period) and frequently those they sent out as envoys would detour to the Southern Court to mend relations and agree to jointly attack the T'o-pa clan from both sides while the Southern Court would also send envoys to the north in what was a very delicate situation for the time. For example:

In 467 the state of Jui-jui sent envoys bearing tribute of local products (See Chronicle of Ming-ti in the Sung Shu.) In 478 the regent Hsiao Tao-ch'eng specially appointed the Galloping Cavalry General Wang Hung-kuei to go as his envoy to Jui-jui and arrange a joint attack on Wei until he finally returned to the capital in 483 after six years of shuttling back and forth overing over 30,000 li in the process. In 480 and 481 the Jui-jui ruler sends envoys bearing a tribute of sable pelts and other articles and also offers up a written request for a joint attack on Wei. (For the two above entries see the Jui-jui Chronicles in vol. 59 of the Nan Ch'i Shu.) In 515, 520 and 541 the Jui-jui send envoys to offer local products as tribute. (See the Jui-jui Chronicles in vol. 54 of the Liang Shu.)

From the time of the Wei emperor Hsuan-wu-ti on both the Jou-jan and the Northern Wei quickly declined into chaos, particularly the Jou-jan for within there were power struggles among the many khans while without there was incessant conflict with the Kao-chu which finally led to a situation of complete disintegration. In 485 the Jou-jan khan, T'u-ho-chen, died and power passed on through three others before it came to Fu-t'u (T'u-ho-chen's nephew) who took the name T'o-han Khan. T'o-han Khan campaigned in the west against the Kao0-chu and he was killed by the Kao-chu King Mi-eh-t'u. Control then passed to his son, Ch'ou-nu, who was skilled at using troops and in the year 516 he smashed the Kao-chu killing their king Mi-eh-t'u but it was not long before Ch'ou-nu was killed by some of his subordinates. His followers then supported his younger brother Ah-na-kuei as khan. His older third-cousin Shih-fa would not submit to this and aso sent out his troops to attack Ah-na-kuei. Ah-na-kuei lost the battle and so along with his younger brother I-chü-fa fled to the south to surrender to the Wei and beg their aid. In the year 520 Ah-na-kuei passed through the border to arrive in Lo-yang for an audience with the Wei ruler in the Hsien-yang palace where the Wei ruler held impressive and solemn ceremonies to entertain and feast him. Ah-na-kuei was conferred with the titles of Duke of Shuo-fang and King of the Juan-juan. In his second year at court, Yang Chün the Huai-shuo garrison commander was dispatched at the head of 15,000 commandery troops to escort Ah-na-kuei back to his country, thus he became the northern vassal state of Wei in a situation that paralleled that of Hu-han-yeh's vasslage to the men of Han.

When Ah-na-kuei fled into the south, another older third-cousin by the name of Po-lo-men eliminated Shih-fan and then set himself up as Khan. Suddenly in the west the younger brother of Mi-eh-t'u the King of Kao-chu, I-fu, staged a comeback at the head of the horde to avenge his older brother. Then when Po-lo-men went west to meet and attack I-fu he unexpectedly was soundly defeated by him with almost the entire army wiped out, fleeing for his life south to Liang-chou where he also followed the example of Ah-na-kuei by declaring his submission to Wei and then requesting aid, all of this in the year 521. Thus the Wei ruler again sent out troops to welcome Po-lo-men and ordered that his people dwell to the north of Chiu-chüan, while settling Ah-na-kuei to the north of Huai-shuo Garrison and all of the Jou-jan who had pledged their allegiance to Wei before this were ordered to return north under the control of Ah-na-kuei. At this time because of the internal problems of the Jou-jan both Ah-na-kuei and Po-lo-men temporarily lived along the northern frontier serving as a buffer in the east and west of the northern regions of the Wei state. Moreover, the Six Garrisons that in times past were to guard against Jou-jan incursions suddenly became a land where those Jou-jan who had submitted and the outlaws of the Wei state lived together and so the defensive measures to defend the state disintegrated so it was not long before the revolt of the Six Garrisons was touched off. Po-lo-men desired to plan a revolt but was apprehended by the men of Wei and killed in hs official residence in Lo-yang.

On the northern borders Ah-na-kuei put his troops and horses in order and expanded his strength while making an outward show of obedience to the Wei rulers. Then with the coming of famine in the Six Garrisons and the revolt of P'e-liu-han-pa-ling in 525 Ah-na-kuei specially sent out his soldiers to aid the men of Wei in putting down the bandits, marching them from Wu-chuan to Wo-yeh and for this Ming-ti sent envoys with gifts to cheer and entertain him. With this Ah-na-kuei became haughty and overbearing, proclaiming himself the Ch'ih-lien-t'o-ping-fa Khan, gradually expanding into the north and restoring the rule of the Jou-jan. Because he had once been in Lo-yang, Ah-na-kuei evied the richness of the culture of China and so on the pattern of the institutions of China he set up offices and their jurisdictions, having a Huang-men, a Palace Atendant and the like. Then when the Wei state fractured into eastern and western sections Ah-na-kuei did not again submit himself to them. Kao Huan and Yu-wen T'ai competed with each other to assiciate themselves with Ah-na-kuei and also to form marriage-bonds. The relationship between these three state was one where each tried to use the other for its own advantage and was extremely complex. Finally Kao Huan by means of great tact became particularly close with Ah-na-kuei and induced him to offer his assistance in opposing the Western Wei. He also received Ah-na-kuei's daughter as one of his concubines and called her the Juan-juan Princess.

It was during this period that the north witnessed the sudden rise to power of the T'u-chüeh (hereafter Turks) and the decline of the Jou-jan. In the year 552 the Turkinsh T'u-men Khan inflicted a crushing defeat on the Jou-jan with Ah-na-kuei killing himself after the defeat of his army. His son An-lo-ch'en took over command of the remnants of the army and withdrew with them into the Northern Ch'i state. The Northern Ch'i ruler Wen-hsuan-ti made An-lo-ch'en a lord and encouraged his return to the north in order to oppose the advance of the Turks. Suddenly in 554 An-lo-ch'en revolted and the Northern Wei (or Ch'i???) emperor personally took the field to attack and break his forces, capturing An-lo-ch'en along with his wife and sons. Thus the scattered remnants of several thousand Jou-jan who were oppressed in the north by the Turks and who had been broken in the west by the Northern Ch'i now fled for their lives into Kuan-chung where they surrendered to the Western Wei. Yu-wen T'ai was thinking of establishing relations with the Turks and so sent three thousand Jou-jan bound up for the Turks to behead. Most of the few Jou-jan tribes that remained both north and south of the desert were all swallowed up by the Turks and thus the Jou-jan ceased to exist in what was the year 555.

From the founding of the state by Chu-lu-hui to the fall of An-lo-ch'en, the Jou-jan existed for some two-hundred and thirty years. Their rise coincided with that of T'o-pa I-lu King of Tai, and their fall was at the same time as the emergence of the Northern Chou and Northern ch'i states so it is by coincidence that the rise and fall of their regime paralleled that of the T'o-pa clan of the Hsien-pei.

FOOTNOTE 1 - The Kao-chu were also an offshoot of the Hsiung-nü for their customs and language were the same as those of the Hsiung-nü. The wagons that that rode in were extremely high and large, and the wheels had many spokes, therefore, they were called Kao-chu (high cart). The tribe had numerous subdivisions and had twelve major surnames. They lived to the northwest of the Jou-jan and were constantly making war on the Hsien-pei and the Jou-jan. Later on most of them either submitted to the Northern Wei or to the Jou-jan, both the Wei shu and the Pei Shu have sections about the Kao-chu.